Business Administration is a science of economics that has its own bases and rules that coordinate the elements of production, such as manpower, capital, land and management, by employing human efforts and available resources, as well as using the means of production to achieve the objectives of an organization, It can be said that it is a science that uses available resources, employs them in a project, a specific institution or organization, and uses these resources in the best possible cases in terms of cost, quantity, quality and timeliness; to reach their desired objectives.
Business management is also defined as the process of managing economic and profit-making activities and projects, while the advent of business science has been associated with the emergence of large and small companies and institutions that provide certain services or goods to individuals and groups; This has led to an impact Significant in the lives of individuals and large and small communities, the management of business over time has become an important area and branch of public administration, where the Business Administration branch has an independent presence in the various universities that have a prestigious position in the world, and this science has evolved by the development of companies and institutions Of this science.
Genesis and development of business science
Business Science is an American science created in the late 19th century, where most of his sects, research, schools, and applications originated in the United States of America, and his development was done by American scientists, and Frederick Taylor is said to be the first to call for the application of this science; but the truth is otherwise, He was not the first to call for its application, but it has a significant and clear impact in this area, and the science of business is based on several bases and theories that make it an existing science in itself, and some of these foundations are still not agreed upon, which led to the lack of a single opinion on the concept of management in the scientific sense or Me.
Business science is based on the general knowledge of management because it is one of its branches, with the emergence of large enterprises and enterprises the concept of management emerged, grew and evolved, and the various institutions were under the management of their owners, and sometimes they resorted to their relatives or acquaintances to assist them in their administrations, and with the emergence The industrial revolution and the increased need for funds with the growth of projects and investments; Financial sources could not provide the vast amount of money, some enterprises sold parts of their projects to other individuals in the form of shares, thus transforming ownership from individual to collective, difficult to manage By its owners only, its administrations became the election of a board of directors by the shareholders, thus the administration became an independent profession in its own right, including the spring of the term business administration, and the need for independent and full-time managers to conduct, take care of and follow up the business.
At present, business Management seeks to reconcile human values with technical development requirements, in addition to analyzing factors that influence production, and to control the internal environment of enterprises in the context of the relationship between environment and economic and political factors, And social and technical in the outside world, and the administration in its general sense is not confined to a single society, it is necessary both in capitalist societies and in socialist or communist societies, the problems facing the Director in the socialist state will not differ from those faced by those who live in the state Capitalism or communism, it must work to deliver expected production, and must use the means available to reach the desired goal.
Business Management Principles
After continuous efforts spanning a century, thinkers and researchers have been able to define a set of principles for business science, and these principles have been divided into:
- Principles of scientific research: the principle of error and right based on the introduction of a set of questions called the questions of the study, and then the development of a set of possible answers to them, called study hypotheses, which are tested to ascertain their authenticity or negation, the second principle is to monitor the problem that has occurred And follow-up, this is done by putting the administrative problem under study for a specified period of time to see the direction of its movement and progress, and then determine the method of treatment.
- Principles of Administrative economics: it contains three basic principles, which are The principle of division of labor which means the division of work to be accomplished into stages, the division of stages into parts, and the parts to tasks, the second principle is the principle of specialization in work, where the work and tasks are distributed to employees according to their experience, specialization and skills, while the third principle involves Streamline business processes, this means removing difficulties and problems to implement high-quality business.
- Principles of Organization: the principles of regulation are five basic principles, and include principles of objective-setting, principles of job design, principles of flexibility, principles of systems, principles of complementary and homogeneity, all of which aim at organizing, distributing and perfecting the work, and achieving all objectives Desired.
- Principles of raising productive efficiency: these are principles aimed at increasing production efficiency, as well as stability and cooperation in the work, including: the development of the spirit of cooperation, the principle of training, and the principle of working conditions, in which conditions are created for the full realization of the work.
Specialization of Business Administration
The specialization of business administration is of great importance, as the individual is prepared for the administrative process according to the scientific methods and management skills, which includes planning, organization, control, guidance, financial functions, human resources, research and development, and the individual is able to develop Complete programs and plans for the administrative institutions that they manage, and the individual is able to make decisions effectively with regard to the management and organization of the projects, in addition to the exercise of administrative control, and the organization of relations between the institution and the external environments. Job opportunities for graduates of the Department of Specialization Business whether it is in companies and public and private institutions:
- Office Manager.
- Director, Customer Services Office.
- Administrative Office officer.
- Operations Officer.
- A business officer.
- Customer Service Coordinator.
- Administrative Officer.